学习笔记 | 四六级复习卡片
absence n.缺席，缺乏（absent a.不在场的；缺乏的）
accidental a.偶然的（accident n.事故）
economic 与财政相关<-->economical 与节约相关-->
insure 保险<-->ensure 确保-->
considerable 相当多（大）的<-->considerate 体谅的-->
invalueable 非常贵重的<-->valueless 毫无价值的-->
sensitive 敏感的<-->sensibl 明智的-->
complement 补全<-->compliment 赞辞-->
resist 抵制<-->persist 坚持-->
principal 最重要的<-->principle 原则，定律-->
intense 强烈的<-->intensive 精深的-->
With the improvement of people's living standards and the increase in consumption level, the garbage problem in China becomes increasingly urgent. Many cities are surrounded by garbage.
Confronted with the growing garbage output and deteriorating environment, the Chinese government is implementing the policy of garbage classification with great effort.
Garbage classification means dividing garbage into recyclable and unrecyclable, and requires people to put garbage into different trash cans so that it can become new resources through different ways of cleaning, transporting and recycling.
It can reduce not only the amount of garbage that needs to be disposed of, but also the deposing cost and the usage of the land, benefiting our society, economy, and environment.
1. 第二句中的“面对日益增长的垃圾产量和环境状况的恶化”，其逻辑主语是后面的“中国政府”，故此处可采用过去分词短语作状语，置于句首，译成confronted with the growing garbage output and deteriorating environment。
“要求人们…”用require sb.to do结构。“通过……方式使之变成新的资源”可看作是“人们将垃圾投放至不同的垃圾桶”的结果，可用so that连接，加强句子逻辑。
3.最后一句的主干可理解为“它可以减少…，降低…，减少…”，三个谓语动词都可用reduce来翻译，因此可共一个动词，后接不同的宾语，用not only...but also...连接。“对社会、经济、生态三方面都有益”则可处理成现在分词短语benefiting...,表结果。
“一带一路”(The Belt and Road)是“丝绸之路经济带”和“21世纪海上丝绸之路”的简称。它将充分依靠中国与有关国家既有的双多边机制，借助既有的、行之有效的区域合作平台。一带一路旨在借用古代丝绸之路的历史符号，高举和平发展的旗帜，积极发展与沿线国家的经济合作伙伴关系，共同打造政治互信、经济融合、文化包容的利益共同体、命运共同体和责任共同体。
“The Belt and Road” is short for the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. It will fully depend on the bi-lateral and multi-lateral mechanism between China and its related nations with the help of existing and effective regional cooperation platforms. It aims to use the historic symbol of the ancient Silk Road, raise the flag of peace and development, and develop the economic partnership with nations along the line positively, in order to build a community of interests with trustful politics, integrated economy and inclusive culture, a community with a shared future, a community with common responsibilities.
明朝(the Ming Dynasty)初期,中国是世界上最发达的国家之一。为了弘扬国力、加强与其他各国的联系,明成祖多次派遣郑和出使西洋。1405年,郑和开始了第一次航行。他的舰队由200多艘船构成,所载人数超过2万人,包括水手、军人、技术人员、译员等,还有大量黄金和丝绸,用于交易和作为礼品。往返用了两年时间。郑和出使的一些国家随船派遣使者(envoy),并带来向明朝进贡的贡品(tribute)。郑和下西洋是世界航海史上的一大壮举(feat)。今天,东南亚仍有很多纪念郑和的建筑。
In the early Ming Dynasty, China was one of the most developed countries in the world.In order to transmit its national power and strengthen contacts with other countries,Emperor Chengzu sent Zheng He to the Western Ocean many times.In 1405,Zheng He embarked on his first voyage.His fleet was composed of more than 200 ships and carried over 20,000 men,including sailors,soldiers,technical personnel,interpreters etc.,and large amounts of gold and silk to be used for trade and as gifts.The round trip took two years.Some of the countries Zheng He visited dispatched envoys bearing tributes to the Ming court on his ships.Zheng He's voyages were a great feat in the world's navigation history.Today,there are still many buildings in Southeast Asia dedicated to his memory.
故宫 the Imperial Palace
紫禁城 the Forbidden City
天安门广场 Tian’anmen Square
建筑面积 floor space
现存 in existence
上朝 give audience
世界文化遗产 World Cultural Heritage
The Imperial Palace, also called the Forbidden City was the palace where the 24 emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties ruled China for roughly 500 years. The Imperial Palace is located in the center of Beijing, on the northern side of Tian’anmen Square, rectangular in shape, 960 meters from north to south and 750 meters wide from east to west, with an area of 72 hectares and a total floor space of 150 000 square meters. It’s the world’s largest and most integral palace made of wood in existence. The Forbidden City is divided into two parts: the outer court and the inner court. The outer court was the place where the emperors gave audience and handled state affairs, while the inner court was the living quarters for the emperors and their families. In 1987 the Imperial Palace was listed by the UNESCO as one of the World Cultural Heritage sites.
孔子(Confucius)是我国古代著名的思想家、教育家，儒家学派(Confucian School)的创始人。相传孔子有弟子三千，贤弟子72人，孔子曾带领部分弟子周游列国14年。在中国五千年的历史上，对华夏民族的性格、气质 (temperament)产生最大影响的人就算是孔子了。他正直（upright）、乐观向上、积极进取。他一生都在追求真、善、美，一生都在追求理想的社会。他品格中的优点，几千年来影响着中国人，特别是影响着中国的知识分子。
Confucius is a famous ideologist, educator, and the founder of Confucian School in ancient China. It's said he has 3,000 disciples, 72 out of whom are excellent ones, and he has led some disciples to visit various states for 14 years. During 5,000 years' history of China, it's Confucius who has exerted the greatest impact on Chinese nation's characteristic and temperament. He is upright,optimistic, active and enterprising, striving for truthfulness, kindness and beauty, and seeking for an ideal society all his life. The shining points in his characteristics have been influencing the Chinese people, especially the Chinese intellectuals for thousands of years.
Emperor was the supreme ruler of the feudalsociety in China. After Yingzheng, the king of Qin,unified China, he called himself Emperor. Sincethen, China had entered a period of emperors'reign,which lasted for 2,132 years. There were totally 495emperors in the history of China until 1912, when Puyi, the last emperor of China gave up thethrone. Emperors dominated all the rights of policy making and military decision and so on.They were the only ones who could decide the fate of the country and its people. In Chinesehistory many wise emperors were diligent in politics and loved their people. They made manyreasonable policies to promote the development of economy and society. There were alsomany cruel and incompetent emperors who brought endless disasters to the people and wereresisted fiercely.
4.“皇帝一人掌握…国家和人民的命运”一句偏长，可拆译成两个句子。后半句“决定着国家和人民的命运”翻译时增译主语“皇帝一人”，虽然原文说的是“一个人”，但由于历朝历代都有很多皇帝，因此要处理成复数：theywere the only ones，后面再加who引导的定语从句。
China is expected to launch a commercial operation of 5G (5th generation) mobile networks in 2020, and to realize a large-scale application in 2022 or 2023, an expert with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) of China said here in a recent interview with Xinhua.
Wang Zhiqin, an expert with the China Academy of Telecommunication Research of MIIT, said China started 5G research and development as early as other countries. In 2013, the Chinese government established IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Group, to boost systematic promotion of 5G.
As one of the leaders of the group, Wang said MIIT coordinated to conduct the worldwide biggest experiment of 5G technology research and development in January this year, and completed the phase 1 test in September.
"China is willing to formulate a unified global 5G standard with other countries," She said, adding that the global research on 5G standard started in March, and it is estimated that the first version will be completed in June, 2018.
"We started early and have accumulated a lot of experience," Wang said. "I hope China can be one of the ’dominant players’ in standard formulation."
She explained that telecommunication is a globalized and huge industry, and customers are looking forward to a unified standard, "we need to be more responsible and cooperate with the international mainstream enterprises."
She said 5G is designed for Internet of Everything (IoE), and 4G offers mobile Internet to people. As the increasing need for low delay and high reliability, 4G faces big challenges.
"Time delay of 4G is from 10ms to 20ms, but some application scenarios with low delay and high reliability requires less than 0.5ms," Wang said, "and 5G can do that."
She took automatic drive as example - "to realize automatic drive, vehicles should be connected with each other and have the ability to avoid crashes in high speed, which needs a very low time delay."
China has attached great importance to 5G in the 13th national Five-Year Plan (2016-2020) and has set the goal of 5G commercialization by 2020.